Urinalysis case studies

Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20 antigen on B-lymphocytes and mediates cell killing through an antibody-dependent cellular toxicity.

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Cystine is insoluble in an acidic pH and thus will lead to the formation of renal calculi in the urinary tract or bladder if the pH environment is acidic. Uric acid crystals are not soluble in ammonia. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20 antigen on B-lymphocytes and mediates cell killing through an antibody-dependent cellular toxicity. Determine what additional clinical procedures should be done upon finding an abnormal result. This leads to the other cause of blood in the urine: damage to the urinary tract. Phase III trials of eculizumab2 have shown significant reduction in hemolysis, thrombosis, transfusion independence, and also improved quality of life. Describe the significance of yeast, bacteria, and crystals in urinary sediment. Describe how urinary casts are formed and list the types of casts. Vegetable proteins such as nuts and beans are low in cystine and should be considered. Cystinuria is the inability to absorb the amino acid cysteine from the intestines and renal tubules. This damage would explain the presence of blood in the absence of large amounts of protein. Other manifestations of PNH may include thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia, which reflect abnormal hematopoiesis, or it may occur in conjunction with aplastic anemia. CASE 1 Click here to go to the answers History: A year-old boy is brought to the pediatrician by his mother because he has had a fever with shaking chills for the past day. Return to the Laboratory Menu.

Treatment may be lifelong, as eculizumab does not affect the underlying abnormal hematopoiesis. This leads to the other cause of blood in the urine: damage to the urinary tract. If any part of the urinary tract is damaged, blood could get into the urine, even if the glomerulus is working fine.

While triple phosphate crystals may have 6 sides, they are only insoluble in basic urines. In an alkaline urine, cystine crystals dissolve so renal calculi will not form.

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Other manifestations of PNH may include thrombocytopenia and granulocytopenia, which reflect abnormal hematopoiesis, or it may occur in conjunction with aplastic anemia.

A diet high in animal protein, similar to the one this patient was on, contains large quantities of cystine.

Urinalysis case study examples

This damage would explain the presence of blood in the absence of large amounts of protein. However, a patient with cystinuria will be susceptible to the pain associated with renal calculi. An additional way of preventing the formation of renal calculi would be to alkalise the urine. Another feature is venous thrombosis especially in the intra-abdominal veins. Case 2: A 12 year old boy was examined in the emergency room. There are two possible ways that blood could get into the urine. Determine what additional clinical procedures should be done upon finding an abnormal result. Alemtuzumab binds to CD52, an antigen present on the surface of B and T lymphocytes. Treatment may be lifelong, as eculizumab does not affect the underlying abnormal hematopoiesis. While triple phosphate crystals may have 6 sides, they are only insoluble in basic urines. Therefore, any cystine that may be present in ones diet foods high in animal protein will be excreted in the urine. Cystine is insoluble in an acidic pH and thus will lead to the formation of renal calculi in the urinary tract or bladder if the pH environment is acidic. If any part of the urinary tract is damaged, blood could get into the urine, even if the glomerulus is working fine.

The relatively low levels of bacteria are also of no clinical significance. Another option is to choose a diet that is free of cystine.

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